Overview of Glioblastoma: Current Drugs and Novel Therapy Trends
Keywords:Glioblastoma, Therapy, Chemotherapy, Temozolomide
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of malignant primary brain tumor. GBM, a very aggressive tumor, has a low survival rate and currently has no curative treatment. ATRX, TERT, TP53 mutations, loss of PTEN function, and EGFR and WT1 have been found to play a role in the genetic pathogenesis of GBM. It has been determined that ionizing radiation, obesity, some metals and chemicals, pesticides, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 are risk factors of GBM. In GBM treatment, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are usually combined. Temozolomide, carmustine, irinotecan and bevacizumab are the most important anticancer agents used in chemotherapy for GBM therapy. Targeted molecular (precision) therapies, targeting DNA damage response pathways, targeting tumor metabolism, immunotherapies, and viral therapies are novel treatment options being studied for the treatment of GBM. In this paper, the characteristics of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), its incidence, genetic pathogenesis, risk factors, treatment options and drugs used in chemotherapy, difficulties encountered in treatment, novel therapies for GBM and challenges and future directions are discussed.
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