An Alternative Method to Assessment on Safety Effectiveness of Food Additives
Mugla Sıtkı Koçman University
Hayrunnisa NADAROĞLU


Food Additives
Group Theory
Alternative Method

How to Cite

DEMİR, N., DEMİR, Y., NADAROĞLU, H., & UÇKAYA, M. (2022). An Alternative Method to Assessment on Safety Effectiveness of Food Additives. International Journal of Innovative Research and Reviews, 6(2), 109-112. Retrieved from


The active sites of enzymes that interact with chemicals are three-dimensional and optically active. Taking into consideration the properties of catalytic sites, it is considered that determining the geometric properties of the chemical substances and the functional groups that they have might make a contribution to the assessment of the safety of food additives. Obtaining the toxicological data of chemicals is a time-requiring and challenging process. Since the number of chemical compounds is significantly high, it is not possible to perform a toxicological assessment for each. Therefore, it is important to predict if toxic or not by using the formulas of chemical compounds. In this study, differences between the geometric structures of chemical compounds (control group) constituting the nutrients were analyzed in terms of consumption and those of food additives added into the food in order to have aroma, flavor and color, by means of group theory. This study aims to predict if food chemicals can be toxic or not using point group analysis. As a material, molecules consisting of food additives, chemical formulas of amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, and secondary metabolites and additives used to regulate the properties of foods have been used in the study. Two and three-dimensional structures of these formulas have been drawn and point groups have been determined. As a method, Campus-licensed versions of ChemDraw 19.0 and Gaussian 09W have been used to draw two and three-dimensional structures of formulas and to carry out the molecular calculations respectively, which are presented by our University. GaussView 6.0 (Free) has been used to analyze the geometrical properties of the molecules
based on Group Theory.



Nelson DL, Cox MM. Lehninger Biyokimyanın İlkeleri. Çev. Elçin Y. Murat (2013):1–1158.

Taylor SL, Baumert JL. Food Toxicology. In: Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems: Elsevier (2014). p. 366–380.

Şen S, Aksoy H, Yılmaz S. Genotoxic carcinogenic potential of food additives and their other effects on human health Gıda katkı maddelerinin genotoksik karsinojenik potansiyeli ve insan sağlığı üzerindeki diğer etkileri. Journal of Human Sciences (2017) 14(4):3093.

B van der Meulen. Food Law. In: Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems: Elsevier (2014). p. 186–195.

Richardson V, Freeman E, Fitzpatrick L, Amirat L, Kubo M, Li M. CHAPTER 5:Legislation for Food Additives Outside Europe. Essential Guide to Food Additives (2013):65–90.

Pressman P, Clemens R, Hayes W, Reddy C. Food additive safety. Toxicology Research and Application (2017) 1:239784731772357.

Newell-Mc Gloughlin M, Burke J. Regulatory Challenges to Commercializing the Products of Ag Biotech. N. In: Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems: Elsevier (2014). p. 21–44.

Barlow SM. Chapter 2:Safety of Food Additives in Europe. Saltmarsh’s Essential Guide to Food Additives (2020):10–26.

Cosmetic Regulation (Official Gazette Issue: 25823) (2005):Chapter 3.

Chen C, Kim S. LC-MS-Based Metabolomics of XenobioticInduced Toxicities. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal (2013) 4(5):e201301008.

Borzelleca JF. Paracelsus: Herald of Modern Toxicology. Toxicological Sciences (2000) 53(1):2–4.

Teitelbaum DT. Chapter 56: Introduction to Toxicology: Occupational & Environmental. In: Katzung, B and Trevor, A, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (2015):1837.

Koza DM. Paketlenmiş Besinlerdeki Tehlike. Ayrıntı Dergisi (2016) 4(43).

Penningroth S. Essentials of toxic chemical risk: Science and society. Essentials of Toxic Chemical Risk: Science and Society (2016):1–212.

Nadaroglu H, Baran A. The Antimicrobial Activity of Herbal Soaps Against Selected Human Pathogens. Tenside Surfactants Detergents (2020) 57(5):354–360.

Nadaroǧlu H, Demir Y, Demir N. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of Iris germanica. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal (2007) 41(8):13–18.

Celik H, Nadaroglu H, Senol M. Evaluation of antioxidant antiradicalic and antimicrobial activities of olive pits (Olea europaea L.). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science (2014) 20(6).

Nadaroglu H, Demir N, Demir Y. Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Activities of Capsules of Caper (Capparis spinosa). Asian Journal of Chemistry (2009) 21(7):5123–5134.

Uckaya M, Uckaya F, Demir N, Demir Y. Evaluation of the efficiency and safety in cosmetic products. International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2016) 499(1–2):295–300.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

The authors keep the copyrights of the published materials with them, but the authors are aggee to give an exclusive license to the publisher that transfers all publishing and commercial exploitation rights to the publisher. The puslisher then shares the content published in this journal under CC BY-NC-ND license.